Content of topics in seismic  and advanced seismic data processing
Stressstrain relationships and Elastic constants1. Deformation and the strain tensor2. Traction and the stress tensor 3. Stressstrain relationships: Hooke’s law 4. The equation of motion 5. Symmetry properties of the strain tensor, stress tensor and stressstrain tensor 6. Definitions of elastic constants 7. Relationships between elastic constants
Rock physics1. VpVs relationships for different lithologies2. Vpdensity relationships for different lithologies 3. Effective media expressions for different elastic constants 4. The Gassmann equation for the calculation of the effect of fluid substitution 5. Rock physics models and workflows
The wave equation
1. The acoustic wave equation  The acoustic wave equation  The reciprocity theorem  The integral representation of the acoustic wavefield  the Kirchhoff integral  Monopoles, dipoles and multipolesource expansion 2. The elastic wave equation  The general case  The inhomogeneous isotropic case  The homogeneous case  From elastic to acoustic  Pwaves and Swaves  Reciprocity theorems  Green’s function and the Representation Theorems 3. The boundary conditions, reflection and transmission and the Zoeppritz equations 4. Plane wave solutions 5. Lame’s Theorem 6. Oneway elastic wave equations for P and Swaves 7. Raytracing; the eiconal equation and transport equation 8. Phase, group and energy velocities
Wavefield extrapolation
1. Temporal and spatial Fourier transforms 2. The acoustic wave equation in the different domains 3. Wavefield extrapolation in the different domains 4. Wavefield extrapolation and migration in the spatial Fourier domain 5. Wavefield extrapolation in the tau,pdomain 6. Forward and backward wavefield extrapolation with the Kirchhoff integral 7. Design of wavefield extrapolators
Deconvolution
1. The convolutional seismic trace model 2. Digital convolution in matrix notation 3. Deconvolution: definition of inverse, spiking or whitening filter 4. Examples:  reverberation  dereverberation  ghost  deghosting  absorption  deabsorption 5. Resolution: signal dispersion as a function of amplitude and phase spectrum 6. The Ztransform, polynomials and factorization 7. Minimumphase, mixedphase and maximumphase wavelets 8. The inverse filter of a twopoint wavelet 9. The inverse filter of an arbitrary wavelet 10. Minimumphase wavelets: properties in the different domains 11. Leastsquares (ls) filters:  the normal equations  ls inverse filters  ls prediction and ls prediction error filters 12. Leastsquares filters in the frequency domain: design and properties 13. Twosided filters: design and properties 14. Filtering in the presence of noise 15. Special topics:  tuning  detuning  vibroseis deconvolution  inverse array filtering = directional deconvolution  surface consistent deconvolution  maximum likelihood, L1norm, and minimum entropy deconvolution  deterministic deconvolution with measured or modeled wavelet  homomorphic deconvolution  deghosting of data of overunder acquisition, dualsensor streamer data and variabledepth streamer data
Velocity analysis
1. Definitions of various types of velocity 2. Traveltime expressions for paraxial rays 3. Expressions for stacking velocities for 3D seismic (= azimuth dependent) 4. Stacking velocity and the curvature of the wavefront associated with the normalincidence ray 5. Moveout expressions for special cases: 1D earth, long offsets, shifted hyperbola, near surface structure and anisotropy 6. Stacking velocity analysis: CVG, CVS. Semblance, differential semblance and the eigenvalue method 7. NMO stretch 8. Coherency inversion for stacking and velocity model building 9. Relationships between stacking, dmo and time migration 10. The commonreflectionsurface (CRS) stack 11. Analytical timedepth relationships
Static corrections
1. Introduction 2. Methods for picking first arrivals (FAs) 3. Modeling the near surface from FAs  refraction/turning ray tomography 4. Methods for picking reflections 5. The residual statics equation and its solution 6. Statics coupling 7. Stackpower optimization with static corrections via Simulated annealing 8. Redatuming
Multiple elimination
1. Characterisation of multiples 2. Spiking deconvolution or Predictive gapped deconvolution:  in the (t,x)domain  in the slant stack or linear Radontransform domain 3. Multiple elimination based on differences in moveout between primaries and multiples:  straight stack  weighted stack  (k,f)transform domain filtering  velocity stack  parabolic Radontransform domain filtering  adaptive beamforming 4. Multiple elimination of OBC data by combining geophone and hydrophone data 5. Wave equation based multiple elimination 6. Multiple elimination based on redatuming of sources and receivers 7. SRME = (free) surface related multiple elimination  the convolution method  the recursive method
SignaltoNoise Enhancement
1. Noise characterisation 2. Random noise suppression based on stacking:  straight stack  weighted stackk  diversity stack  median stack  smart stack 3. The parabolic Radontransform 4. Wiener smoothing filters 5. Matched filter and Output energy filter 6. Singular value decomposition (SVD) and the KarhunenLoeve (KL) transform 7. Suppression of acquisition footprint 8. Despiking 9. (f,x)prediction filtering for noise suppression 10. Structure enhancing filtering 11. Velocity filters (pieslice filter or fan filter) 12. Methods for ground roll filtering 13. Arrays: field arrays and digital group forming (DGF) 14. Data regularization and trace interpolation
Migration
1. Migration, modeling and inversion 2. Geometric approach to summation migration = diffraction stack migration 3. Resolution before and after migration 4. Migration stretch (pulse distortion) 5. Aliasing of the migration operator and its cures 6. Normal incidence rays, image rays and vertical traveltime 7. Definitions of depth migration and time migration 8. The wave equation and its factorization; Green's functions 9. Wavefield extrapolation in the various domains 10. Imaging conditions for shot records, survey sinking and zerooffset data 11. The Kirchhoff integral and the Rayleigh integral for migration 12. Characteristics of summation migration 13. Migration in terms of double focused array synthesis 14. Migration algorithms:  k,fmigration  phaseshift migration, phaseshift plus interpolation, and (extended) split step Fourier  phase screen migration  finite difference migration  summation migration 15. Reverse time migration (RTM) 16. Different implementations of summation migration:  Beam migration  Gaussian beam migration  Parsimonious migration and Fresnel zone migration  Wavepath migration  Map migration 17. Migration and demigration 18. Diffraction tomography, the pointspread function (PSF) and resolution 19. Trueamplitude migration 20. Migration and inversion
Trueamplitude migration
1. Factors describing amplitude effetcs 2. Minimal datasets 3. Commonangle image gathers 4. Trueamplitude imaging conditions 5. Trueamplitude migration as a weighted diffraction stack 6. The Beylkin determinant 7. Migration and illumination
DMO (dip moveout) and PSI (prestack imaging)
1. Effects of structure on stacking velocities 2. The DMO concept 3. The DMO equation and DMO impulse response 4. 3D DMO 5. PSI (prestack imaging): principle and equations 6. DMO and velocity analysis 7. DMO algorithms 8. DMO and vertically varying velocity functions 9. DMO and related processes: MZO, DZO and AMO 10. DMO and generalized data mapping, inverse DMO and trace interpolation 11. DMO and velocity model building 12. Commonreflectionsurface (=CRS) stack
Velocity model building and updating
1. Minimal datasets and common image gathers (CIG’s) 2. Iterative velocity model building with CIG’s (commonoffset, commonshot, commonangle) 3. The migration conditions 4. Migration and traveltime inversion 5. Migration and demigration 6. Wavefront curvature associated with normalincidence rays and stacking velocity 7. Velocity model parameterisation 8. Velocity model building methods:  Coherency inversion or model based stack  Map migration  Dynamic map migration (DMM) or curvature inversion  Stereotomography  Traveltime inversion (TTI)  Traveltime inversion in the migrated domain (TTIMD)  Common focus panel (CFP) analysis  Tomographic velocity model building  Depth focusing analysis (DFA)  Extended imaging conditions and Wave equation migration velocity analysis (WEMVA)  Differential semblance optimisation (DSO)  Fullwaveform inversion (FWI)
Anisotropy
1. Introduction and definition of anisotropy 2. The stress tensor, symmetries and the Voigt notation 3. Plane wave solutions of the wave equation and the Christoffel equations 4. Phase velocity and Group velocity 5. Relationships between Wave surface and Slowness surface 6. Measurement of group velocity and phase velocity 7. Raytracing, the eiconal equation and the transport equation 8. Shearwave splitting 9. Definitions pertaining to anisotropy 10. Transverse isotropy (TI):  Angle dependency of velocities in VTI media (vertical axis of symmetry)  The Thomsen constants for weakly anisotropic media  Effective elastic constants for finely layered media  Backus averaging  Crack and fracture properties  Angle dependency of reflection and transmission coefficients  HTI media and azimuthal anisotropy (horizontal axis of symmetry)  TTI media (tilted axis of symmetry) 11. Anisotropy from seismic survey design and processing
Multicomponent seismic, shear seismic and anisotropy
1. The data matrix 2. Sources and receivers for multicomponent seismic data acquisition 3. Polarization analysis of multicomponent seismic  hodograms 4. Polarization filtering 5. Rotation of sources and receivers 6. Characteristics of P, SV and SH waves 7. PSV converted waves: generation and processing 8. Displacement components of geophones at the free surface 9. The wavefield generated by a vertical and a horizontal vibrator 10. P and Swavefield separation:  VSP data  Surface seismic data 11. Elastic wavefield decomposition at the source and at the receiver 12. Elastic wavefield redatuming and migration
OBC (ocean bottom cable)seismic and OBS (ocean bottom system) seismic
1. OBS and OBC features: 4C data and PSV characteristics 2. Geophysical advantages of wideazimuth OBC/OBS data 3. Acquisition:  Acquisition geometries  Receiver location determination  Calibration of the various receivers 4. Processing:  PSV data processing  Deghosting and dereverberation processing  Wavefield decomposition with various combinations of multicomponent receivers 5. Case studies 6. Dualsensor streamer data and SWIM (= separated wavefield imaging)
AVO : Amplitude Versus Offset and AVA : Amplitude Versus Angle
1. Factors affecting seismic amplitudes 2. The boundary conditions 3. Example of normal incidence reflection and transmission 4. Reflection and transmission coefficients  the Zoeppritz equations 5. Approximate expressions for the reflection coefficients 6. Reflectivity from logs and AVO modeling 7. Modeling of tuning effects and wavelet stretch 8. Processing for AVO analysis 9. Estimation of AVO parameters 10. Calculation and interpretation of AVO attributes 11. Crossplotting of AVO attributes and AVO classification 12. Elastic inversion based on AVO behaviour 13. Angle stacks and elastic impedance (EI) with its applications
Inversion : overview of different methods
1. Linear leastsquares estimation 2. Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) 3. Resolution and reliability: resolution matrix and covariance matrix 4. Baysian estimation, use of a priori knowledge 5. Linear leastsquares estimation and methods for regularization 6. Iterative linearized leastsquares estimation:  Gradient search or Steepest descent (SD)  Newton's method  GaussNewton method  Conjugate Gradient method (CG) 7. The Monte Carlo sampling search method 8. The flexible polyhedron search method 9. Simulated annealing (SA) 10. Genetic algorithms (GA) 11. Neural nets (NN) 12. Entropy methods 13. Neighborhood algorithm (NA) 14. Particle swarm optimization (PSO)
4D seismic or timelapse seismic
1. Introduction and examples 2. Rock physics and fluid substitution with the Gassmann equation 3. Modeling of 4D effects and feasibility analysis 4. Measurement of traveltime differences and amplitude differences 5. Quantification of repeatibility of acquisition and processing 6. Time lapse data acquisition and time lapse processing 7. Methods to assess the comparison of two datasets 8. Methods for crossequalization of two datasets 9. 4D modeling of different scenarios 10. The 4D workflow 11. Case studies
SeismictoWell Matching
1. Acoustic impedance (AI), reflectivity and the convolutional trace model 2. Resolution and bandwidth 3. Reflectivity estimation from well data and seismic modeling 4. Model based wavelet estimation 5. Filter design to match different datasets 6. Using well data to calibrate seismic data 7. Methods for seismictowell matching with:  matched filter  timeshift and scaling  timeshift, scaling and phase rotation  leastsquares (Wiener) filter 8. Leastsquares seismic wavelet estimation with well data 9. Industry packages for seismictowell matching
Seismic Inversion
1. From reflectivity to acoustic impedance (AI) and vice versa 2. Consequences of the bandlimitation of the seismic data and the importance of low frequencies 3. Leastsquares estimation 4. Singular value decomposition (SVD) 5. The Resolution matrix and the Covariance matrix 6. Probability theory and the Bayesian approach to inversion 7. Deterministic inversion and Stochastic inversion 8. Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling of model space 9. Elastic inversion and lithologic inversion 10. FWI: full waveform inversion of seismic reflection data 11. Kriging, cokriging and sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS) 12. Classification and discrimination methods:  Cluster analysis  kmeans clustering  Factor analysis (FA)  Principal component analysis (PCA)  Gaussian classification  Discriminant analysis  The self organizing map (SOM)  Multivariate statistical analysis  Neural net reservoir characterization
Seismic attributes
1. Introduction to seismic attributes 2. Analytic traces: instantaneous amplitude,  phase, and  frequency 3. Overview of attributes and attribute classification 4. The geometric attributes of dip and azimuth 5. The coherence attribute and the Coherency Cube 6. Curvature and reflector shape 7. Spectral decomposition and the Wavelet transform 8. Structureoriented filtering and image enhancement
Survey design and assesment of different acquisition geometries
1. Minimal data sets 2. Diffraction tomography The LippmannSchwinger equation and the Born and Rytov approximations 3. The pointspread function (PSF) 4. Survey design, kspectrum coverage and resolution 5. Generation of subsurface illumination attributes
Borehole geophysics: VSP and holetohole seismic
1. VSP seismic:  Acquisition geometries; multicomponent datasets  Wavefield separation: Pwaves and Swaves; Upgoing and Downgoing waves  Deconvolution  Migration  VSP data matching to surface seismic and to well data 2. Holetohole seismic:  Data acquisition  Crosswell wavefield separation  The projection slice theorem and image reconstruction  Traveltime tomography: ART, SIRT alhgorithms and the Radon transform  Diffraction tomography, kspace coverage and imaging  Migration  Borehole waves

