Processing steps with alternative implementations
Seismic processing is
characterized by a sequence of processing steps, that is more or less fixed or
standardized; however, for each of these steps there are number of alternative
ways for their implementation. The choice of the most appropriate way depends on
geophysical considerations; therefore the processing geophysicist should have a
thorough understanding of the geophysical principles that underly these
processes.
An overview of the processing steps with, for each step a number
of alternative implementations, is given below:

Editing
 spike removal
 noise burst removal

Statics
 field statics, elevation corrections
 first arrival picking
 modelling of the near surface  long wavelength statics
 reflection signal picking
 residual statics calculation  short wavelength statics
 stackpower optimization (e.g. simulated annealing)
 wave equation redatuming

Stacking velocity analysis
 moveout behaviour and stacking velocity
 velocity analysis  velocity spectra  semblance analysis
 normal incidence times and normal incidence wavefront curvature
 common reflection surface (CRS) attributes
 velocity model building
 relationship of stacking velocity with dmo and time migration velocity

Signaltonoise enhancement
 straight stack, weighted stack, diversity stack
 velocity stack
 median filter based methods
 ground roll filtering and swell noise filtering
 Wiener filter, matched filter, output energy filter
 Karhunen Loeve transform
 f,xdomain prediction filtering
 trace interpolation and survey regularization

Deconvolution
 spectrum estimation
 wavelet estimation
 attenuation and absorption
 estimation of the earth response
 vibroseis processing
 data adaptive deconvolution
 deterministic deconvolution
 partly deterministic partly adaptive (PDPA) deconvolution
 deconvolution methods:
 leastsquares Wiener filters
 maximum, minimum entropy or parsimonious deconvolution
 homomorphic deconvolution
 ARMA model deconvolution

Multiple elimination
 predictive deconvolution
 differential moveout methods:
 (weighted) stack
 k,fdomain
 linear or parabolic Radon transform
 convolution methods (SRME: (free) surface related multiples elimination)
 dereverberation with wave equation redatuming
 image processing techniques

DMO
 dmo and velocity analysis
 dmo and prestack imaging (PSI)
 2D and 3D Kirchhoff implementation

Migration
 time migration  velocity analysis
 depth migration  velocity model building
 migration algorithms:
 finite difference algorithms
 Fourier domain;e.g. phaseshift, phaseshift plus interpolation
 Kirchhoff or summation or (weighted) diffraction stack migration
 Gaussian beam migration
 reverse time migration (RTM)

Velocity model building
 Coherency inversion or model based stack
 Map migration
 Dynamic map migration (DMM) or curvature inversion
 Stereotomography
 Traveltime inversion in the data domain (TTI)
 Traveltime inversion in the migrated domain (TTIMD)
 Common focus panel (CFP) analysis
 Tomographic velocity model building or CIG flattening
 Depth focusing analysis (DFA)
 Extended imaging conditions and wave equation migration velocity analysis (WEMVA)
 Differential semblance optimization (DSO)
 Full waveform inversion (FWI)
HOME